Double-Antigen Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Detection of Anti-HIV-1 and -2 Antibodies Using Upconverting Nanoparticle Reporters

Iida Martiskainen, Etvi Juntunen, Teppo Salminen, Karoliina Vuorenpää, Sherif Bayoumy, Tytti Vuorinen, Navin Khanna, Kim Pettersson, Gaurav Batra, Sheikh M. Talha
2021 Sensors  
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are often used for the detection of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in remote locations in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with low or limited access to central laboratories. The typical format of an RDT is a lateral flow assay (LFA) with visual interpretation prone to subjectivity. This risk of misinterpretation can be overcome with luminescent upconverting nanoparticle reporters (UCNPs) measured with a miniaturized easy-to-use reader
more » ... trument. An LFA with UCNPs for anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies was developed and the assay performance was evaluated extensively with challenging patient sample panels. Sensitivity (n = 145) of the UCNP-LFA was 96.6% (95% CI: 92.1–98.8%) and specificity (n = 309) was 98.7% (95% CI: 96.7–99.7%). Another set of samples (n = 200) was used for a comparison between the UCNP-LFA and a conventional visual RDT. In this comparison, the sensitivities for HIV-1 were 96.4% (95% CI: 89.8–99.3%) and 97.6% (95% CI: 91.6–99.7%), for the UCNP-LFA and conventional RDT, respectively. The specificity was 100% (95% CI: 96.4–100%) for both assays. The developed UCNP-LFA demonstrates the applicability of UCNPs for the detection of anti-HIV antibodies. The signal measurement is done by a reader instrument, which may facilitate automated result interpretation, archiving and transfer of data from de-centralized locations.
doi:10.3390/s21020330 pmid:33418986 fatcat:5jt4e6hosbfr7ctdvfwhahujkm