Interrelation between facial soft tissue lessions, underlying fracture patterns and treatment of zygomatic bone trauma: a 10 year retrospective study
Background: The pattern of zygomatic bone fractures varies in the literature, their features being frequently masked by the presence of associated soft tissue lesions. In this context the clinical diagnosis and the therapeutic indications can be difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of zygomatic bone fractures and their interrelation with concomitant overlying soft tissue injuries, as well as to assess the type of treatment methods applied depending on the
... ending on the fracture pattern and the results achieved depending on the incidence rate of postoperative complications. We will use these results in order to improve the diagnosis and the establishment of correct treatment of this pathology. Methods: A 10-year retrospective evaluation of midface fractures was performed in patients diagnosed and treated in a tertiary Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Statistical analysis was performed with the MedCalc Statistical Software version 19.2 (MedCalc Software bvba, Ostend, Belgium;53 https://www.medcalc.org; 2020). Nominal data were expressed as frequency and percentage. The comparisons of the frequencies of a nominal variable among the categories of another nominal variable were made using the chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regressions were used in order to establish the independent association between variables and lacerations/excoriations. After using the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, a value of p<0.025 was considered statistically significant.Results: The study included 242 patients with zygomatic bone fractures. The majority of the fractures were displaced n=179 (73.9%), closed n=179 (73.9%) and complete n=219 (90.5%). Hematoma was the most frequent associated soft tissue lesion n=102 (42.1%) regardless of the fracture pattern (p=1.000). Complete zygomatic fracture (OR – 2.68; p=0.035) and fractures with displacement (OR – 3.66; p=0.012) were independently associated with the presence of laceration. Fractures with displacement (OR – 7.1; p=0.003) were independently associated with the presence of excoriation. The most frequent type of treatment applied was Gillies reduction (61.9%), followed by ORIF (30.9%). The most frequent postoperative complication was malunion secondary to Gillies treatment (4,6%). Conclusions: Patients presenting lacerations and excoriations on clinical soft tissue examination will most frequently have an underlying complete, displaced or comminuted zygomatic fracture. In the case of displaced, open or comminuted fractures we achieved the best results secondary to ORIF treatment method, while in the case of non-displaced and closed fractures, the best results achieved were secondary to conservative treatment.