Effect of the Verbal Encouragement on Psychophysiological and Affective Responses during Small-Sided Games
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Verbal encouragement (VE) is considered as external motivation provided by physical education teacher. For this reason, this study aimed to examine the effects of VE on psychophysiological and affective responses during small-sided games (SSG). Sixteen male school students (age: 17.37 ± 0.48 years) completed four sessions of a 4-a-side SSG. Two sessions occurred with VE (SSGE), and two sessions did not include VE (SSGNE). Heart rate was continuously recorded, and rating of perceived exertion
... rceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]b) were measured after each training session. Physical enjoyment was assessed after each protocol. Mood state was recorded before and after each training session using the profile of mood-state. HR max, [La]b, RPE, Physical enjoyment, and vigor were higher in SSGE compared to SSGNE (all, p < 0.001). The SSGE and SSGNE resulted in a decreased total mood disturbance (TMD) (p = 0.001, ES = 0.60; p = 0.04, ES = 0.33, respectively) and tension (p < 0.001, ES = 0.91; p = 0.004, ES = 0.47, respectively), and the vigor was increased after the SSGE (p < 0.001, ES = 0.76). SSGE and SSGNE induce similar improvement in TMD and tension. However, SSGE induced higher physiological responses, RPE, enjoyment, and positive mood than SSGNE. Physical education teachers could use VE during specific soccer sessions to improve physical aspects, enjoyment, and mood in participants.