Cooperative Multi-Sensor Tracking of Vulnerable Road Users in the Presence of Missing Detections

Martin Dimitrievski, David Van Van Hamme, Peter Veelaert, Wilfried Philips
2020 Sensors  
This paper presents a vulnerable road user (VRU) tracking algorithm capable of handling noisy and missing detections from heterogeneous sensors. We propose a cooperative fusion algorithm for matching and reinforcing of radar and camera detections using their proximity and positional uncertainty. The belief in the existence and position of objects is then maximized by temporal integration of fused detections by a multi-object tracker. By switching between observation models, the tracker adapts
more » ... the detection noise characteristics making it robust to individual sensor failures. The main novelty of this paper is an improved imputation sampling function for updating the state when detections are missing. The proposed function uses a likelihood without association that is conditioned on the sensor information instead of the sensor model. The benefits of the proposed solution are two-fold: firstly, particle updates become computationally tractable and secondly, the problem of imputing samples from a state which is predicted without an associated detection is bypassed. Experimental evaluation shows a significant improvement in both detection and tracking performance over multiple control algorithms. In low light situations, the cooperative fusion outperforms intermediate fusion by as much as 30%, while increases in tracking performance are most significant in complex traffic scenes.
doi:10.3390/s20174817 pmid:32858942 pmcid:PMC7506590 fatcat:iqsjgckxkfgjhisk3cru4w5o2u