Proteolytic formation of either of the two prothrombin activation intermediates results in formation of a hirugen-binding site

L W Liu, J Ye, A E Johnson, C T Esmon
1991 Journal of Biological Chemistry  
Hirugen, a synthetic dodecapeptide corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal amino acids 53-64 of hirudin, binds within a deep groove in thrombin that contains a cationic region referred to as the anion-binding exosite. This region is important in many of the binary interactions of thrombin with macromolecular substrates and cofactors. Fluorescein-labeled hirugen was used to probe which steps in the prothrombin activation process generate this anion-binding exosite. Two activation cleavage sites
more » ... on cleavage sites exist in bovine prothrombin. Cleavage at Arg274-Thr275 releases the activation fragments to generate the thrombin precursor, prethrombin 2. Cleavage of prothrombin within a disulfide loop at Arg323-Ile324 leads to formation of meizothrombin with no loss of peptide material but with formation of amidolytic activity. Cleavage of the same bond in prethrombin 2 generates thrombin. Hirugen, labeled at the amino terminus with fluorescein isothiocyanate, does not bind to prothrombin but does bind to thrombin (Kd = 9.6 +/- 1.2 x 10(-8) M), prethrombin 2 (Kd = 1.3 +/- 0.1 x 10(-7) M), thrombin-fragment-2 complex (Kd = 1.1 +/- 0.2 x 10(-6) M), and meizothrombin (Kd = 1.6 +/- 0.5 x 10(-8) M). Prothrombin fragment-2 and hirugen both bind independently to thrombin. A ternary complex can form with hirugen and fragment-2 and either thrombin or prethrombin 2, suggesting that fragment-2 and hirugen bind to discrete sites. Hirugen also alters the active site conformation of thrombin as detected by modulation of synthetic substrate hydrolytic activity. These studies suggest that conformational changes, rather than alleviating steric hindrance, are responsible for the formation of the hirugen-binding site during prothrombin activation. Furthermore, this conformational change can be effected by the cleavage of either of the two bonds required for activation of prothrombin.
pmid:1748641 fatcat:vwgsfl35bjenrlakhmqxzk7hbq