The Environmental Impacts of Kabd Landfill on the Soil and Groundwater in Kuwait: A Case Study
International journal of geosciences
The environmental impacts of the Kabd Landfill on the soil and groundwater in Kuwait were evaluated. Physical and chemical analyses were carried out on thirty pairs of surface, subsurface soil and five groundwater samples. The groundwater samples are collected from boreholes nearby and downstream of the landfill while the soil samples collected along six profiles. The groundwater samples were geochemically analyzed to determine the total dissolved solids, cations, anions and heavy metals,
... heavy metals, particularly Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr) and Aluminum (Al), Lithium (Li), Boron (B), Fluoride (F) and Vanadium (V). The soil samples were geochemically analyzed to determine concentration of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe), Aluminum (Al) and organics. The results show that the soil and groundwater are contaminated with high TDS, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO 4 and heavy metals, especially Ni, Cd, Cu, Al, V and F. The heavy metal concentrations in both the soil and groundwater samples are compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard permissible limits. The results revealed that the Zn, Li, B and Fe metals are below the WHO limits for consumption. The soil lithology, natures of dumping, the depth of quarry and the depth to the groundwater level play roles in leachate generation and groundwater contaminations. Such leachate may be originated from the capillary fringe water, moisture content and rising water table, due to its close level at the bottom of the waste disposal site. The organic strength of the soil was reduced due to waste decomposition and continuous gas flaring. Re-designing of sanitary landfills to prevent leachate from getting to the groundwater and adoption of clean technology for a sustainable land management program for reclamation is recommended.