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Meta-synthesis method is proposed to tackle with open complex giant system problems which cannot be effectively solved by traditional reductionism methods by a Chinese system scientist Qian, Xuesen (Tsien HsueShen) around the early 1990s. The method emphasizes the synthesis of collected information and knowledge of various kinds of experts, and combining quantitative methods with qualitative knowledge. Since then, continuous endeavors have been taken to put those ideas into practice. In thisdoi:10.1016/j.ejor.2004.03.036 fatcat:d26buqk6lbhcbbicn4zo3wrnzq