A bio-inspired analog silicon retina with Michaelis-Menten auto-adaptive pixels sensitive to small and large changes in light

Stefano Mafrica, Stéphanie Godiot, Mohsine Menouni, Marc Boyron, Fabien Expert, Raphaël Juston, Nicolas Marchand, Franck Ruffier, Stéphane Viollet
2015 Optics Express  
In this paper, we present: (i) a novel analog silicon retina featuring auto-adaptive pixels that obey the Michaelis-Menten law, i.e. V = V m I n I n +σ n ; (ii) a method of characterizing silicon retinas, which makes it possible to accurately assess the pixels' response to transient luminous changes in a ±3-decade range, as well as changes in the initial steady-state intensity in a 7-decade range. The novel pixel, called M 2 APix, which stands for Michaelis-Menten Auto-Adaptive Pixel, can
more » ... ve Pixel, can auto-adapt in a 7-decade range and responds appropriately to step changes up to ±3 decades in size without causing any saturation of the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) transistors. Thanks to the intrinsic properties of the Michaelis-Menten equation, the pixel output always remains within a constant limited voltage range. The range of the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) was therefore adjusted so as to obtain a Least Significant Bit (LSB) voltage of 2.35 mV and an effective resolution of about 9 bits. The results presented here show that the M 2 APix produced a quasi-linear contrast response once it had adapted to the average luminosity. Differently to what occurs in its biological counterparts, neither the sensitivity to changes in light nor the contrast response of the M 2 APix depend on the mean luminosity (i.e. the ambient lighting conditions). Lastly, a full comparison between the M 2 APix and the Delbrück auto-adaptive pixel is provided.
doi:10.1364/oe.23.005614 pmid:25836794 fatcat:jvv4urivgzb6pna4rwrtkwodii