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underlying the observed effects involve a direct, cellspecific upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by macrophages, but not fibroblasts, in response to androgens. Androgens require the transforming growth factor ␤ ␤ signalling intermediate Smad3 to be present in order to influence repair and local pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. That reducing 5␣ ␣-dihydrotestosterone levels through 5␣ ␣-reductase antagonism markedly accelerates healing suggests a specific target for futuredoi:10.1242/jcs.02786 pmid:16449322 fatcat:ugy2oybkhfhstdis46ov43lqwu