Micronutrients and many important factors that affect the physiological functions of toll-like receptors

Salwa Refat El-Zayat, Hiba Sibaii, Fathia A. Mannaa
2019 Bulletin of the National Research Centre  
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are type I integral transmembrane receptors involved in recognition and conveying of pathogens to the immune system. These receptors are located either on cell surfaces or within endosomes. They are activated by specific ligand leading to the release of cytokines via signal transduction pathway. The excess production of these cytokines leads to disrupt the immune homeostasis. There are several factors regulating TLR expression and consequently affecting their
more » ... ting their functions. Among these are inflammation, cytokines, some cellular process, air pollution, depression, stress, some drugs, genetic polymorphism, nutrition, and micronutrients. Some micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements) may be considered as important TLR regulators, as they have immunomodulatory functions. Vitamins D, B12, and A; zinc; copper; and iron have important role on innate immune responses. Aim of work: This review gives a brief idea on TLR family and attempts to cover the factors affecting the physiological functions of them. Conclusion: Of many factors affecting TLRs functions are micronutrients. There is a shortage of researches concerning the effect of micronutrients deficiency on the function of TLRs, all of which focused on vitamin D but other vitamins have not got the same importance that they deserve. This orients our efforts to work at this point in the future.
doi:10.1186/s42269-019-0165-z fatcat:oubomy7dpnhehphvo6gldxuope