Is restricted hip movement a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament injury?
Restricted hip movement along with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) has been reported to be an important risk factor in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. We performed a literature review assessing the evidence that FAI, or restricted hip movement, contributes to the likelihood of sustaining an ACL injury to provide an evidence-based and comprehensive update on the relationship between these pathologies. Studies were divided into three categories: clinical studies, radiological studies
... diological studies and cadaveric studies. Clinical studies primarily assessed the limitations to hip movement in patients with ACL injury, and numerous studies of this kind have demonstrated a relationship between restricted movement and ACL injury. Radiological studies have been able to demonstrate a higher number of bony hip abnormalities in patients with ACL injury. However, due to variable results within these studies, it is unclear which kinds of bony abnormality are specifically associated with an increased risk of ACL injury. Cadaveric studies have demonstrated that peak ACL relative strain was inversely related to the range of internal rotation of the femur, thus providing a potential mechanism for this relationship. In conclusion, clinical and radiological studies have established a correlation between restricted hip and ACL injury, but have been unable to demonstrate an increased risk of future ACL injury in individuals with restricted hip movement. Future prospective cohort studies are necessary to confirm this. Additionally, these findings highlight the need for a thorough clinical assessment of the hip when assessing patients with an ACL injury.