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2014 The ionization damage associated with electron and X-ray irradiation of insulating specimens during their investigation by various techniques (EM, AES, XPS, etc) is considered from the point of view of the Auger mechanism. This damage results from the Auger electron transport through the specimen and more specifically from the Auger cascade in the excited atom. After electronic rearrangements, this cascade finally leaves electron vacancies in the uppermost allowed states of the valencedoi:10.1051/mmm:1995125 fatcat:pcg6lnmsozhu7lt57qv2crtvmy