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Why is vertebral pneumaticity in sauropod dinosaurs so variable?
The vertebrae of sauropod dinosaurs have distinctive and complex pneumatic features including fossae and foramina in the sides of their centra. These vary between individuals, serially within individuals, and even between the left and right sides of single vertebrae. This presents a conundrum because bone is usually the least variable material in the vertebrate body. Blood vessels, however, are much more labile, as can be seen in the varied occurrence of vascular foramina in the vertebrae notdoi:10.32388/1g6j3q.5 fatcat:3rjrd4vj7nh4raizfzm3lmfetu