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We develop a model of deviance by incorporating the labeling e ect into rational choice theory. In our model, we provide an explanation of the process through which a deviant is being stigmatized and explore theoretically the relationship between the experience of having deviated and the incentive of deviation. Surprisingly, our study nds that an ex-deviant is not necessarily more likely to deviate, contrary to widely held belief. This is because the less experienced deviant may hesitate moredoi:10.1628/0932456012974512 fatcat:cjtrvq2xlzaxfpdwdest4banzq