Numerical Study of a Liquid Metal Oscillating inside a Pore in the Presence of Lorentz and Capillary Forces
In order to ensure stable power exhaust and to protect the walls of fusion reactors, liquid metals that are fed to the wall surface through a capillary porous system (CPS) are considered as alternative plasma-facing components (PFCs). However, operational issues like drop ejection and plasma contamination may arise. In this study, the unsteady flow of a liquid metal inside a single pore of the CPS in the presence of Lorentz forces is investigated. A numerical solution is performed via the
... ormed via the finite element methodology coupled with elliptic mesh generation. A critical magnetic number is found (Bondm = 4.5) below which the flow after a few oscillations reaches a steady state with mild rotational patterns. Above this threshold, the interface exhibits saturated oscillations. As the Lorentz force is further increased, Bondm > 5.8, a Rayleigh–Taylor instability develops as the interface is accelerated under the influence of the increased magnetic pressure and a finite time singularity is captured. It is conjectured that eventually, drop ejection will take place that will disrupt cohesion of the interface and contaminate the surrounding medium. Finally, the dynamic response of different operating fluids is investigated, e.g., gallium, and the stabilizing effect of increased electrical conductivity and surface tension is demonstrated.