Fluid evolution in Tertiary magmatic-hydrothermal ore systems at the Rhodope metallogenic province, NE Greece. A review

Vasilios Melfos, Panagiotis Voudouris
2016 Geologia Croatica  
Characterization of various fluid parameters in magmatic-hydrothermal ore mineralizations is potentially essential for interpretation of the conditions of formation and therefore for mineral exploration. Fluid inclusions can provide a useful and promising tool in the research of the ore forming processes in these systems. This review focuses on the nature, composition and origin of magmatic-hydrothermal ore forming fluids involved in the formation of representative Tertiary ore deposits at the
more » ... re deposits at the Rhodope metallogenic province in NE Greece. These deposits are spatially related to Tertiary magmatism in NE Greece. Case studies are presented here and include an intrusion-hosted sheeted vein system (Kavala), a Au-rich carbonate replacement and quartz-vein mineralization (Asimotrypes), mineralized veins in Eptadendro-Rachi and Thasos island (Kapsalina and Panagia), porphyry Cu-Mo-Re-Au deposits in Pagoni Rachi and Maronia and epithermal Au-Ag mineralizations in Perama and Loutros. Hydrothermal fluids rich in CO 2 together with elevated Au and Te content are common and occur at the Kavala intrusion hosted sheeted vein system, at the Asimotrypes Au-rich carbonate replacement mineralization and at the Panagia (Thasos) vein system. We classify all these ore mineralizations as intrusion-related gold systems (IRGS). Transport and precipitation of metals including Au and Te is favoured when CO 2 is present. Precipitation of the ore mineralization takes place due to the immiscibility of the carbonic and the aqueous fluids which have a magmatic origin with the contribution of meteoric water. Cooling of magmatic hydrothermal fluids and dilution with meteoric water is a common cause for ore mineral formation in the vein mineralizations of Eptadendro/ Rachi and Kapsalina Thasos. At the Pagoni Rachi and Maronia porphyry deposits, boiling and the high proportion of the vapour phase are the most essential fluid processes which affected ore formation. The epithermal veins overprinting the Pagoni Rachi and the Maronia porphyry systems and the HS-IS epithermal system in Perama Hill and the IS epithermal mineralization in Loutros are characterized by low to moderate temperatures and low to moderate salinities. Cooling and dilution of the ore fluids are the main process for gold precipitation. We conclude that the different fluid parameters and microthermometric data indicate a variety of fluid origin conditions and sources which can affect the strategy for exploration and prospecting for gold, rare and critical metals.
doi:10.4154/gc.2016.12 fatcat:74q4r4dq7jfm7d5uxle7evfjxq