Green and Cost-Effective Synthesis of Tin Oxide Nanoparticles: A Review on the Synthesis Methodologies, Mechanism of Formation, and Their Potential Applications
Nanoscale Research Letters
AbstractNanotechnology has become the most promising area of research with its momentous application in all fields of science. In recent years, tin oxide has received tremendous attention due to its fascinating properties, which have been improved with the synthesis of this material in the nanometer range. Numerous physical and chemical methods are being used these days to produce tin oxide nanoparticles. However, these methods are expensive, require high energy, and also utilize various toxic
... lize various toxic chemicals during the synthesis. The increased concerns related to human health and environmental impact have led to the development of a cost-effective and environmentally benign process for its production. Recently, tin oxide nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by green methods using different biological entities such as plant extract, bacteria, and natural biomolecules. However, industrial-scale production using green synthesis approaches remains a challenge due to the complexity of the biological substrates that poses a difficulty to the elucidations of the reactions and mechanism of formations that occur during the synthesis. Hence, the present review summarizes the different sources of biological entities and methodologies used for the green synthesis of tin oxide nanoparticles and the impact on their properties. This work also describes the advances in the understanding of the mechanism of formation reported in the literature and the different analytical techniques used for characterizing these nanoparticles.