Structural Changes in the Pacific–Japan Pattern in the Late 1990s

Peiqiang Xu, Lin Wang, Wen Chen, Juan Feng, Yuyun Liu
2019 Journal of Climate  
The Pacific-Japan (PJ) pattern, also known as the East Asia-Pacific pattern, is a teleconnection that significantly influences the East Asian summer climate on various time scales. Based on several reanalysis and observational datasets, this study suggests that the PJ pattern has experienced a distinct three-dimensional structural change in the late 1990s. Compared with those during 1979-98, the PJ pattern shifts eastward by approximately 208 during 1999-2015, and the intensity of its
more » ... structure in the extratropics weakens significantly. As a result, its influences on the summer rainfall along the mei-yu band are weakened after the late 1990s. These observed changes can be attributed to three reasons. First, the location where the PJ pattern is excited shifts eastward. Second, the easterly shear of the background wind is very weak around the source region of the PJ pattern after the late 1990s, which prevents the convection-induced baroclinic mode from converting into barotropic mode and thereby from propagating into the extratropics. Third, the PJ patterninduced rainfall anomalies are weak along the mei-yu band after the late 1990s. As a result, their feedbacks to the PJ pattern become weak and play a considerably reduced role in maintaining the structure of the PJ pattern in the midlatitudes. In contrast, the eddy energy conversion from the basic flow efficiently maintains the PJ pattern before and after the late 1990s and thereby contributes little to the observed change.
doi:10.1175/jcli-d-18-0123.1 fatcat:kjsb6fnydjhvlffbortb5mwwfi