Lattice gauge theory simulations in the quantum information era
Contemporary physics (Print)
The many-body problem is ubiquitous in the theoretical description of physical phenomena, ranging from the behavior of elementary particles to the physics of electrons in solids. Most of our understanding of many-body systems comes from analyzing the symmetry properties of Hamiltonian and states: the most striking example are gauge theories such as quantum electrodynamics, where a local symmetry strongly constrains the microscopic dynamics. The physics of such gauge theories is relevant for the
... understanding of a diverse set of systems, including frustrated quantum magnets and the collective dynamics of elementary particles within the standard model. In the last few years, several approaches have been put forward to tackle the complex dynamics of gauge theories using quantum information concepts. In particular, quantum simulation platforms have been put forward for the realization of synthetic gauge theories, and novel classical simulation algorithms based on quantum information concepts have been formulated. In this review we present an introduction to these approaches, illustrating the basics concepts and highlighting the connections between apparently very different fields, and report the recent developments in this new thriving field of research.