Analysis of β2AR-Gs and β2AR-Gi complex formation by NMR spectroscopy
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that preferentially couples to the stimulatory G protein Gs and stimulates cAMP formation. Functional studies have shown that the β2AR also couples to inhibitory G protein Gi, activation of which inhibits cAMP formation [R. P. Xiao, Sci. STKE 2001, re15 (2001)]. A crystal structure of the β2AR-Gs complex revealed the interaction interface of β2AR-Gs and structural changes upon complex formation [S. G.
... et al., Nature 477, 549–555 (2011)], yet, the dynamic process of the β2AR signaling through Gs and its preferential coupling to Gs over Gi is still not fully understood. Here, we utilize solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and supporting molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to monitor the conformational changes in the G protein coupling interface of the β2AR in response to the full agonist BI-167107 and Gs and Gi1. These results show that BI-167107 stabilizes conformational changes in four transmembrane segments (TM4, TM5, TM6, and TM7) prior to coupling to a G protein, and that the agonist-bound receptor conformation is different from the G protein coupled state. While most of the conformational changes observed in the β2AR are qualitatively the same for Gs and Gi1, we detected distinct differences between the β2AR-Gs and the β2AR-Gi1 complex in intracellular loop 2 (ICL2). Interactions with ICL2 are essential for activation of Gs. These differences between the β2AR-Gs and β2AR-Gi1 complexes in ICL2 may be key determinants for G protein coupling selectivity.