Effect of low frequency ultrasound and ultraviolet-C light for water disinfection in recirculating aquaculture systems
Recirculating aquaculture systems are well-known as environmentally friendly and high water-efficient production systems. The high stocking densities and low water exchange leads to an increased risk of infectious diseases. In this project the combination of low frequency ultrasound (LFUS) with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light for the control of pathogens was studied. A comparative study about the efficiency of LFUS, UV-C and their combination against prokaryotic and eukaryotic model organisms was
... el organisms was performed. Against bacteria, the application of UV-C was very effective, while the application of LFUS was not effective. However, a pretreatment of the water with LFUS decreased the average size of the suspended particles and improved the bactericidal effect of UV-C light. Compared to the low bactericidal dose of UV-C, a much higher UV-C dose was required for inactivation of eukaryotic model organisms. A significant increase of UV-C dose, however, can be limited by the possible photo-induced formation of nitrite from nitrate. Alternatively, LFUS can be used to kill eukaryotic parasites. However, the efficiency of LFUS differed greatly between species and can be well described by functions of an exponential decay. The evaluation of whole effluent toxicity by using the fish egg test and luminescent bacteria test revealed no evidence of toxic disinfection by-products formation during UV-C irradiation and/or LFUS sonication. This study shows that LFUS can be applied safely at energy densities that are effective against a wide range of eukaryotic parasites like ciliates, nematodes and crustaceans. The combination of LFUS and UV-C could provide an appropriate water treatment with respect to all relevant pathogens in recirculating aquaculture systems.