Downscaling Land Surface Temperature in an Arid Area by Using Multiple Remote Sensing Indices with Random Forest Regression
Many downscaling algorithms have been proposed to address the issue of coarse-resolution land surface temperature (LST) derived from available satellite-borne sensors. However, few studies have focused on improving LST downscaling in arid regions (especially in deserts) because of inaccurate remote sensing LST products. In this study, LST was downscaled by a random forest model between LST and multiple remote sensing indices (such as soil-adjusted vegetation index, normalized multi-band drought
... index, modified normalized difference water index, and normalized difference building index) in an arid region with an oasis-desert ecotone. The proposed downscaling approach, which involves the selection of remote sensing indices, was evaluated using LST derived from the MODIS LST product of Zhangye City in Heihe Basin. The spatial resolution of MODIS LST was downscaled from 1 km to 500 m. Results of visual and quantitative analyses show that the distribution of downscaled LST matched that of the oasis and desert ecosystem. The lowest (approximately 22 • C) and highest temperatures (higher than 37 • C) were detected in the middle oasis and desert regions, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed approach achieves relatively satisfactory downscaling results, with coefficient of determination and root mean square error of 0.84 and 2.42 • C, respectively. The proposed approach shows higher accuracy and minimization of the MODIS LST in the desert region compared with other methods. Optimal availability occurs in the vegetated region during summer and autumn. In addition, the approach is also efficient and reliable for LST downscaling of Landsat images. Future tasks include reliable LST downscaling in challenging regions.