Ocean Warming Effect on Surface Gravity Wave Climate Change for the End of the Twenty-First Century

Yalin Fan, Isaac M. Held, Shian-Jiann Lin, Xiaolan L. Wang
2013 Journal of Climate  
Surface wind (U 10 ) and significant wave height (Hs) response to global warming are investigated using a coupled atmosphere-wave model by perturbing the sea surface temperatures (SSTs) with anomalies generated by the Working Group on Coupled Modeling (WGCM) phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) coupled models that use the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4)/Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A1B (SRES A1B) scenario late in the
more » ... cenario late in the twenty-first century. Several consistent changes were observed across all four realizations for the seasonal means: robust increase of U 10 and Hs in the Southern Ocean for both the austral summer and winter due to the poleward shift of the jet stream; a dipole pattern of the U 10 and Hs with increases in the northeast sector and decreases at the midlatitude during boreal winter in the North Atlantic due to the more frequent occurrence of the positive phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO); and strong decrease of U 10 and Hs in the tropical western Pacific Ocean during austral summer, which might be caused by the joint effect of the weakening of the Walker circulation and the large hurricane frequency decrease in the South Pacific. Changes of the 99th percentile U 10 and Hs are twice as strong as changes in the seasonal means, and the maximum changes are mainly dominated by the changes in hurricanes. Robust strong decreases of U 10 and Hs in the South Pacific are obtained because of the large hurricane frequency decrease, while the results in the Northern Hemisphere basins differ among the models. An additional sensitivity experiment suggests that the qualitative response of U 10 and Hs is not affected by using SST anomalies only and maintaining the radiative forcing unchanged (using 1980 values), as in this study.
doi:10.1175/jcli-d-12-00410.1 fatcat:ryzi2ufyrrbmdebloupfnvlu5u