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This article considers the role of proportionality in determining the level and type of remedies available to World Trade Organization Members for violations of legal obligations or for certain other undesirable or unfair conduct. As an aid to interpretation, proportionality confirms the purpose of suspension of concessions as inducing compliance and may clarify the meaning of 'nullification or impairment' and the appropriate response to actionable or prohibited subsidies. However, principlesdoi:10.1093/ejil/chl034 fatcat:nurduubzfvcapfdyo55xem5tf4