Fast Algorithms for Parameterized Problems with Relaxed Disjointness Constraints
In parameterized complexity, it is a natural idea to consider different generalizations of classic problems. Usually, such generalization are obtained by introducing a "relaxation" variable, where the original problem corresponds to setting this variable to a constant value. For instance, the problem of packing sets of size at most p into a given universe generalizes the Maximum Matching problem, which is recovered by taking p=2. Most often, the complexity of the problem increases with the
... ation variable, but very recently Abasi et al. have given a surprising example of a problem --- r-Simple k-Path --- that can be solved by a randomized algorithm with running time O^*(2^O(k r/r)). That is, the complexity of the problem decreases with r. In this paper we pursue further the direction sketched by Abasi et al. Our main contribution is a derandomization tool that provides a deterministic counterpart of the main technical result of Abasi et al.: the O^*(2^O(k r/r)) algorithm for (r,k)-Monomial Detection, which is the problem of finding a monomial of total degree k and individual degrees at most r in a polynomial given as an arithmetic circuit. Our technique works for a large class of circuits, and in particular it can be used to derandomize the result of Abasi et al. for r-Simple k-Path. On our way to this result we introduce the notion of representative sets for multisets, which may be of independent interest. Finally, we give two more examples of problems that were already studied in the literature, where the same relaxation phenomenon happens. The first one is a natural relaxation of the Set Packing problem, where we allow the packed sets to overlap at each element at most r times. The second one is Degree Bounded Spanning Tree, where we seek for a spanning tree of the graph with a small maximum degree.