Research in the supporting sciences

1984 Language Teaching  
Research in the supporting sciences LINGUISTIC THEORY 84-252 Armstrong, Sharon Lee (Wesleyan U.) and others. What some concepts might not be. Cognition (Lausanne), 13, 3 (1983), 263-308. A discussion of the difficulties of prototype theories for describing compositional meaning motivates three experiments that inquire how well-defined concepts fare under paradigms that are commonly interpreted to support the prototype view. The stimulus materials include exemplars of prototype categories
more » ... vehicle, fruit, vegetable) previously studied by others, and also exemplars of supposedly well-defined categories {odd number, even number, female, and plane geometry figure) . Experiment I, using these materials, replicated the exemplar rating experiment of Rosch (1973). It showed that both the well-defined and prototypic categories yield graded responses, the supposed hall-mark of a family resemblance structure. Experiment II, using the same sorts of stimulus materials, replicated a verification-time paradigm, also from Rosch (1973). Again, the finding was that both well-defined and prototypic categories yielded results previously interpreted to support a family-resemblance description of those categories, with faster verification times for prototypical examplars of each category. In Experiment III, new subjects were asked outright whether membership in the cateogory of fruit, odd number, etc., is a matter of degree, or is not, and then these subjects were rerun in the Experiment I paradigm. Though subjects judged odd number, etc., to be well defined, they provided graded responses to all categories once again. These findings highlight interpretive difficulties for the experimental literature on this topic. Part I of the discussion first outlines a dual theory of concepts and their identification procedures that seems to organise these outcomes. But Part II of the discussion argues that feature theories are, in general, too impoverished to describe mental categories. 84-253 Bondarko, A. V. KaTeropHajrbHbie CHTyauHH (K TeopHH cj)yHKUHOH-ajiiHofi rpaMMaTHKH). [Categorial situations (towards a theory of functional grammar).] Bonpocu H3biKO3HauuH (Moscow), 2 (1983), 20-32. An attempt at a classification of abstract types of situation in relation to the means by which these are formally expressed. These types of situation can combine in various ways in the expression of larger, more complex states of affairs, and a typology of these types is provided, along with the ways in which they may combine. For example, given a categorisation into actions, states, existence, etc., it is possible to isolate a range of predicate properties (aspect, tense, modality, polarity, mood, etc.), a range of nominal properties (role, animacy, gender, definiteness, etc.) and properties relating to quality, quantity and circumstance. There are restrictions on possible combinations of these properties. More detailed information is given in relation to aspectual meanings, and the use of aspectual categorial situations in typological linguistics is briefly illustrated.
doi:10.1017/s0261444800010570 fatcat:u74pqv73kjbpjk4fglj26ckwky