Relationship Between Respiratory Compensation Point and Anaerobic Threshold in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is used in the prognostic evaluation of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In these patients, the ventilation feedback system is dysfunctional, and overactive peripheral chemoreceptors may be responsible for the early appearance of the respiratory compensation point (RCP) after the anaerobic threshold (AT). The mechanism of RCP appearance remains unknown and very few studies have reported the relationship between RCP and
... between RCP and heart failure. We hypothesized that the duration between the RCP and AT (RCP-AT time) can predict the severity of cardiac disorders and prognosis in patients with HFrEF.Methods and Results:We enrolled 143 patients with HFrEF who underwent symptom-limited maximal CPX between 2012 and 2016. During a median follow-up of 1.4 years, cardiovascular death occurred in 45 participants (31%). The patients who died had a significantly shorter RCP-AT time and lower hemoglobin (Hb) levels than those who survived (P<0.001 and P=0.01, respectively). Cox regression analyses revealed RCP-AT time and Hb level to be independent predictors of cardiovascular death in patients with HFrEF (P<0.001 and P=0.018, respectively). RCP-AT time can better predict prognosis in patients with HFrEF than the magnitude of increase in oxygen consumption within the isocapnic buffering domain (∆V̇O2AT-RCP). It may be useful as a new prognostic indicator in these patients.