A New Framework for Precise Identification of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma

Sarah M. Ayyad, Mohamed A. Badawy, Mohamed Shehata, Ahmed Alksas, Ali Mahmoud, Mohamed Abou Abou El-Ghar, Mohammed Ghazal, Moumen El-Melegy, Nahla B. Abdel-Hamid, Labib M. Labib, H. Arafat Ali, Ayman El-Baz
2022 Sensors  
Prostate cancer, which is also known as prostatic adenocarcinoma, is an unconstrained growth of epithelial cells in the prostate and has become one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. The survival of patients with prostate cancer relies on detection at an early, treatable stage. In this paper, we introduce a new comprehensive framework to precisely differentiate between malignant and benign prostate cancer. This framework proposes a noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis
more » ... m that integrates two imaging modalities of MR (diffusion-weighted (DW) and T2-weighted (T2W)). For the first time, it utilizes the combination of functional features represented by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps estimated from DW-MRI for the whole prostate in combination with texture features with its first- and second-order representations, extracted from T2W-MRIs of the whole prostate, and shape features represented by spherical harmonics constructed for the lesion inside the prostate and integrated with PSA screening results. The dataset presented in the paper includes 80 biopsy confirmed patients, with a mean age of 65.7 years (43 benign prostatic hyperplasia, 37 prostatic carcinomas). Experiments were conducted using different well-known machine learning approaches including support vector machines (SVM), random forests (RF), decision trees (DT), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classification models to study the impact of different feature sets that lead to better identification of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Using a leave-one-out cross-validation approach, the diagnostic results obtained using the SVM classification model along with the combined feature set after applying feature selection (88.75% accuracy, 81.08% sensitivity, 95.35% specificity, and 0.8821 AUC) indicated that the system's performance, after integrating and reducing different types of feature sets, obtained an enhanced diagnostic performance compared with each individual feature set and other machine learning classifiers. In addition, the developed diagnostic system provided consistent diagnostic performance using 10-fold and 5-fold cross-validation approaches, which confirms the reliability, generalization ability, and robustness of the developed system.
doi:10.3390/s22051848 pmid:35270995 pmcid:PMC8915102 fatcat:r2sypzk3z5ei5m3jg7cdusqcqa