Bidimensional Regression

W. R. Tobler
2010 Geographical Analysis  
Since its invention by Francis Galton in 1877 regression analysis has been found useful in almost all disciplines. Comparison of geographic phenomena requires a two-dimensional extension of this technique. In this manner geographic maps can be compared with each other. Possible applications include geometric comparison of ancient and modern maps, or of "mental" maps, or for rubbersheeting as used in Geographic Information Systems and in remote sensing. Other applications, for example, in
more » ... for the comparison of shapes of leaves, fish, faces, or skulls after the manner of D'Arcy W Thompson are also possible, as are higher-dimensional and multivariate cases. The method implements, and puts into this new context, existing models from the field of cartography. The linear case yields an easy definition of a Pearsonian-like correlation coefficient The bidimensional case is richer in mathematical options than is the usual unidimensional version. The curvilinear case is of even greater utility. Here the regression coefficients constitute a spatially varying, but coordinate invariant, second-order tensor field defined by the matrix of partial derivatives of the transformation. This can be shown to be essentially equivalent to Tissot's Indicatrix, used in cartography to determine the properties of a map projection. In a computer implementation a nonparametric approach allows visualization of the regression by automatically plotting the pair of scatter diagrams, drawing of the displacement field, differentiable smooth interpolation of the warped coordinates and predicted image by a diagram of the principal strains, and with contour maps of the estimated local angular, areal, and total distortion.
doi:10.1111/j.1538-4632.1994.tb00320.x fatcat:kjj4w7q4irfthjx4skzv5fbiae