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Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) has been used extensively because of its unique thermal and electric properties. Different techniques have been used for the preparation of TiO 2 nanofluids which include single-step and two-step methods. In the natural world, TiO 2 exists in three different crystalline forms as anatase, brookite, and rutile. Nanoparticles are not used directly in many heat transfer applications, and this provides a major challenge to researchers to advance towards stable nanofluiddoi:10.3390/app8040587 fatcat:bl6d4pakyjbuhpcaciwhcrwswu