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We report on different refractive index change (RIC) behavior in borosilicate glasses induced by focused 1 kHz and 250 kHz femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation. The influence of fs laser irradiation condition and annealing temperature on RIC was examined. Absorption, electron spin resonance and Raman spectra, and transmission electron microscope were used to clarify the mechanisms of the RIC. Smaller RIC (up to 10 −4 ) was observed after 1 kHz fs laser irradiation, while larger RIC (up to 10 −1 )doi:10.1364/ome.1.000724 fatcat:3jprky6cx5aphbepnkmrsgwq5m