LANDRACES OF VEGETABLES AND CUCURBITS FROM KAZAKHSTAN INTO VIR COLLECTION AS INITIAL MATERIAL FOR THE BREEDING
The article gives a historical overview of expeditionary surveys of the Republic of Kazakhstan territory by the VIR employees with the aim of collecting local vegetable and melon crops from the first expedition in 1925 and to present days. A total of 13 expeditions of VIR were carried out across Kazakhstan, including cooperative surveys with employees of the Kazakh Research Institute of Potato and Vegetable Growing. The role of Vavilov and his associates in the formation of the Institute's
... he Institute's collections, the continuity of ideas and traditions in the scientific work with plant genetic resources are emphasized. The analysis of the dynamics of receipt of expeditionary samples in the collection of VIR is given. The current state and significance of local vegetable resources of vegetable and melon crops of Kazakhstan for breeding use in the Russian Federation is shown. The botanical status of the collected seed material is reflected and the results of long-term comprehensive ecological and geographical study of the collection at VIR stations are presented. Genetic sources of valuable traits are identified in various directions of breeding in cabbage, tomato, carrot, radish, radish, watermelon, melon and pumpkin for use in breeding programs. It is emphasized that the creation of highly productive varieties and plant hybrids that combine high quality with resistance to a complex of biotic and abiotic factors can be successful in breeding with the wide use of wild species, semi-cultural and primitive forms and local varieties with a high degree of adaptation . Taking into account the exclusion of local varieties from production by highly productive varieties, the role of preserving their variability in gene banks is growing. Long-term international scientific cooperation contributes to the solution of the tasks of mobilizing plant resources by conducting expedition collections, conservation and rational use of plant genetic resources.