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The PID (proportional–integral–derivative) controller is the most widely used control method in modern engineering control because it has the characteristics of a simple algorithm structure and easy implementation. The traditional PID controller, in the face of complex control objects, has been unable to meet the expected requirements. The emergence of the intelligent algorithm makes intelligent control widely usable. The Quasi-Affine Transformation Evolutionary (QUATRE) algorithm is a newdoi:10.3390/a14060173 fatcat:fa33tyju6jdchkcey3eq37rvae