Introduction [stub]

Arthur MacDonald
1890 American Journal of Psychology  
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more » ... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. PSYCHOLOGICAL LITERATURE. PSYCHOLOGICAL LITERATURE. causes sensations. The relations of the sensations affect the next "internal" and cause the "affection" termed perception (images). The relation of images affects corresponding harmonies in the " pure intellect," and these changes are thoughts. What is the difference between the human and the animal soul? Here, as elsewhere, Swedenborg is obscure and extremely difficult to comprehend. We feel sure that he is logical and has definite ideas on the subject, even if we see as "through a glass darkly." The life of the sensations constitutes the animal soul or "animus," also called the " inferior mind." In the animal this is completely dominated by the " superior mind," (pure intellect) and has no independence of its own. In man there is interpolated between the two, a " rational mind," which exists at first as a power of attention or free will. This is the "man proper" as to his self-consciousness. He can turn either to the sensations or to the superior mind and establish the relations existing in the animal by allowing the superior mind to control the animus. But failing in this, the animus asserts its control, and being blind like Schopenhauer's Will, works destruction. This is the Fall of Man. This rational mind becomes organized in time (ontogeny) out of the experiences of life. Every cell is both sensory and motor, both receiving and giving stimuli. Each cell has its own will, and hence wills must be distinguished into genera and species. Will is simply the effort to break forth into act, and action ensues when the tension overcomes the obstacles on the reception of appropriate stimuli. This is a meagre outline of salient points of a system that goes into complete details of all phenomena, and seems to compare favorably with the systems of other great philosophers; it is remarkable that all notice of Swedenborg is wanting in histories of philosophy. Besides this the man himself, with his thirty years' record of orderly daily hallucinations offers a wonderful problem to the student of psychology. This work closes the pre-hallucinatory portion of Swedenborg's literary career, and one cannot help thinking that had he died then, his fame would have been greater. Now, nobody thinks of him except as the " seer," or " madman." The following words from the Rational Psychology, sound quite sane. " When we live as souls perhaps we ourselves shall laugh at what we have guessed at in so childish a manner." If this review shall suggest a closer sympathy between Biologists and Psychologists in the effort to solve the problems of life, it will have accomplished its mission. III.-CRIMINOLOGICAL.
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