Targeting STAT-3 signaling pathway in cancer for development of novel drugs: Advancements and challenges
Genetics and Molecular Biology
Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT-3) is a transcription factor that regulates the gene expression of several target genes. These factors are activated by the binding of cytokines and growth factors with STAT-3 specific receptors on cell membrane. Few years ago, STAT-3 was considered an acute phase response element having several cellular functions such as inflammation, cell survival, invasion, metastasis and proliferation, genetic alteration, and angiogenesis. STAT-3 is
... activated by several types of inflammatory cytokines, carcinogens, viruses, growth factors, and oncogenes. Thus, the STAT3 pathway is a potential target for cancer therapeutics. Abnormal STAT-3 activity in tumor development and cellular transformation can be targeted by several genomic and pharmacological methodologies. An extensive review of the literature has been conducted to emphasize the role of STAT-3 as a unique cancer drug target. This review article discusses in detail the wide range of STAT-3 inhibitors that show antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, targeting constitutive STAT-3 signaling is a remarkable therapeutic methodology for tumor progression. Finally, current limitations, trials and future perspectives of STAT-3 inhibitors are also critically discussed.