MULTI-PHASE NATURE OF A RADIATION-DRIVEN FOUNTAIN WITH NUCLEAR STARBURST IN A LOW-MASS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

Keiichi Wada, Marc Schartmann, Rowin Meijerink
2016 Astrophysical Journal Letters  
The structures and dynamics of molecular, atomic, and ionized gases are studied around a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) with a small ($2\times 10^6 M_\odot$) black hole using 3D radiation hydrodynamic simulations. We studied, for the first time, the non-equilibrium chemistry for the X-ray dominated region in the "radiation-driven fountain" (Wada 2012) with supernova feedback. A double hollow cone structure is naturally formed without postulating a thick "torus" around a central
more » ... around a central source. The cone is occupied with an inhomogeneous, diffuse ionized gas and surrounded by a geometrically thick ($h/r \gtrsim 1$) atomic gas. Dense molecular gases are distributed near the equatorial plane, and energy feedback from supernovae enhances their scale height. Molecular hydrogen exists in a hot phase ( > 1000 K) as well as in a cold ( < 100 K), dense ( >$10^3$ cm$^{-3}$) phase. The velocity dispersion of H$_2$ in the vertical direction is comparable to the rotational velocity, which is consistent with near infrared observations of nearby Seyfert galaxies. Using 3D radiation transfer calculations for the dust emission, we find polar emission in the mid-infrared band (12$\mu m$), which is associated with bipolar outflows, as suggested in recent interferometric observations of nearby AGNs. If the viewing angle for the nucleus is larger than 75 deg, the spectral energy distribution (~ 2 -- 60 $\mu m$) of this model is consistent with that of the Circinus galaxy. The multi-phase interstellar medium observed in optical/infrared and X-ray observations is also discussed.
doi:10.3847/2041-8205/828/2/l19 fatcat:mi3d2iybqrhpdbzwk2w4jaq6he