Cell cycle checkpoint signaling involved in histone deacetylase inhibition and radiation-induced cell death

R. V. Nome
2005 Molecular Cancer Therapeutics  
In breast cancer, radiation has a central role in the treatment of brain metastasis, although tumor sensitivity might be limited. The tumor cell defense response to ionizing radiation involves activation of cell cycle checkpoint signaling. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, agents that cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and thereby aberrations in the chromatin structure, may also override the DNA damage defense response and facilitate the radiation-induced mitotic cell death. In
more » ... rimental metastasis models, the human breast carcinoma cell line MA-11 invariably disseminates to the central nervous system. We compared profiles of in vitro MA-11 cell cycle response to ionizing radiation and HDAC inhibition. After radiation exposure, the G 2 -M phase accumulation and the preceding repression of the G 2 phase regulatory factors Polo-like kinase-1 and cyclin B1 required intact G 2 checkpoint signaling through the checkpoint kinase CHK1, whereas the similar phenotypic changes observed with HDAC inhibition did not. MA-11 cells did not show radiation-induced expression of the G 1 cell cycle inhibitor p21, indicative of a defective G 1 checkpoint and consistent with a point mutation detected in the tumor suppressor TP53 gene. Increase in the p21 level, however, was observed with HDAC inhibition. Following pretreatment with the HDAC inhibitor, the efficiency of clonogenic regrowth after irradiation was reduced, which is in accordance with the concept of increased probability of mitotic cell death when the chromatin structure is disrupted. Among molecular cell cycle -targeted drugs currently in the pipeline for testing in early-phase clinical trials, HDAC inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as radiosensitizers. [Mol Cancer Ther 2005;4(8):1231 -8]
doi:10.1158/1535-7163.mct-04-0304 pmid:16093439 fatcat:nfmtddmgz5bxzhu6c2pdusnhbq