Natriuretic Peptides and Nitric Oxide Induce Endothelial Apoptosis via a cGMP–Dependent Mechanism

Noriko Suenobu, Masayoshi Shichiri, Masatora Iwashina, Fumiaki Marumo, Yukio Hirata
1999 Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology  
Apoptosis is a mode of cell death in which the cell participates in its own demise. We studied whether endothelium-derived relaxing factor, nitric oxide (NO), and natriuretic peptides affect apoptosis of rat vascular endothelial cells via a cGMP-dependent pathway and whether such effects are antagonized by an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1 (ET-1). Three natriuretic peptides (atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and C-type natriuretic peptide) induced
more » ... ial apoptosis as demonstrated by nucleosomal laddering on agarose gel electrophoresis and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling method. This dose-dependent relation was assessed by quantifying the fragmented and intact DNA contents by the diphenylamine method. The atrial natriuretic peptide-induced endothelial apoptosis was completely blocked by a guanylate cyclase-coupled receptor antagonist (HS-142-1) and an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (KT5823). An NO donor, NOR3 {(Ϯ)-(E)-4-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexeneamide; FK409} also induced endothelial apoptosis; the effect of this compound was abrogated by KT5823 and an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one). A cGMP derivative, 8-bromo-cGMP, but not the cAMP derivative 8-bromo-cAMP, caused endothelial apoptosis; the effect of ODQ was also abrogated by KT5823. Endothelial apoptosis induced by ANP, NOR3, and 8-bromo-cGMP was similarly antagonized by ET-1. ANP, NOR3, and 8-bromo-cGMP caused marked accumulations of the tumor suppressor gene product p53 but not of bcl-2, as determined by Western blot analysis. These results demonstrate for the first time that endothelium-derived NO and natriuretic peptides are proapoptotic factors for endothelial cells, whereas the endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor ET-1 is an antiapoptotic factor, suggesting that the countervailing balance between these vasodilators and vasoconstrictors, in addition to regulation of vascular tonus, may contribute to endothelial cell integrity. (Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol.
doi:10.1161/01.atv.19.1.140 pmid:9888876 fatcat:5vpvpm7ag5czjadg7b57k2qkfa