Massively parallel quantification of CRISPR editing in cells by TRAP-seq enables better design of Cas9, ABE, CBE gRNAs of high efficiency and accuracy
The CRISPR RNA-guided endonucleases Cas9, and Cas9-derived adenine/cytosine base editors (ABE/CBE), have been used in both research and therapeutic applications. However, broader use of this gene editing toolbox is hampered by the great variability of efficiency among different target sites. Here we present TRAP-seq, a versatile and scalable approach in which the CRISPR gRNA expression cassette and the corresponding surrogate site are captured by Targeted Reporter Anchored Positional Sequencing
... sitional Sequencing in cells. TRAP-seq can faithfully recapitulate the CRISPR gene editing outcomes introduced to the corresponding endogenous genome site and most importantly enables massively parallel quantification of CRISPR gene editing in cells. We demonstrate the utility of this technology for high-throughput quantification of SpCas9 editing efficiency and indel outcomes for 12,000 gRNAs in human embryonic kidney cells. Using this approach, we also showed that TRAP-seq enables high throughput quantification of both ABE and CBE efficiency at 12,000 sites in cells. This rich amount of ABE/CBE outcome data enable us to reveal several novel nucleotide features (e.g. preference of flanking bases, nucleotide motifs, STOP recoding types) affecting base editing efficiency, as well as designing improved machine learning-based prediction tools for designing SpCas9, ABE and CBE gRNAs of high efficiency and accuracy (>70%). We have integrated all the 12,000 CRISPR gene editing outcomes for SpCas9, ABE and CBE into a CRISPR-centered portal: The Human CRISPR Atlas. This study extends our knowledge on CRISPR gene and base editing, and will facilitate the application and development of CRISPR in both research and therapy.