3D nerve integrated tissue on a chip and organoid models for exploring mechanotransduction and gene expression

Justin Bobo
The ever-growing need to understand and engineer biological and biochemical mechanisms of cells and materials that aim to study, restore, maintain, and improve the treatment of disease has led to the emergence of in vitro models in the field of tissue engineering. The evolution of tissue-engineered models holds promise for mimicking the responses of biological functionality of physiological systems. Such tissue models involve the combination of cells, engineering, materials methods, and
more » ... biochemical and biophysical factors, allowing the microenvironmental signals to be in uenced by their three-dimensional (3D) surroundings, including the extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold architectures. This distinct, complex organization enables a versatile design and distinctive advantages over foundational 2D studies. 3D ECM systems and 3D ECM scaffold systems provide more complex cellto- cell communication, realistic cell-ECM interaction, and spatial organization. Engineered tissue models, encompassing methods such as brain models with neurons, hold promise in providing more predictive, robust, and physiologically relevant platforms to ?nd and study disease, in ammation, and injured states. Despite its potential to revolutionize diagnostics, therapeutics, treatment, and healing protocols, our present understanding of neural activity response to mechanical loading on neurons in vitro is mainly limited to local stimulation of single or multiple neurons cultured over planar substrates. To better simulate neuron response in 3D to mechanics, we developed a neuron-like nerve integrated tissue on a chip (NITC) system embedded within a collagen matrix that, once subjected to our mechanical excitation test-bed (MET) system, converts mechanical stimuli into bio-active cues shifting intracellular signals. To accomplish this, we designed the MET system incorporating a voice coil actuator (VCA) with custom printed 3D parts controlled by a power supply and function generator synchronized with live image capture. This work then stu [...]
doi:10.1184/r1/20431716 fatcat:pwxvd6eqr5akxnzrbgnfy5lyg4