Effects of Arachidonic and Docosohexahenoic Acid Supplementation during Gestation in Rats. Implication of Placental Oxidative Stress

Cynthia Guadalupe Reyes-Hernández, David Ramiro-Cortijo, Pilar Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Sonia Giambelluca, Manuela Simonato, Mª Del Carmen González, Angel Luis López de Pablo, Mª Del Rosario López-Giménez, Paola Cogo, Miguel Sáenz de Pipaón, Virgilio P Carnielli, Silvia M Arribas
2018 International Journal of Molecular Sciences  
Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (ARA and DHA) are important during pregnancy. However, the effects of dietary supplementation on fetal growth and oxidative stress are inconclusive. We aimed to assess the effect of high ARA and DHA diet during rat gestation on: (1) ARA and DHA availability in plasma and placenta, (2) fetal growth, and (3) placental oxidative stress, analyzing the influence of sex. Experimental diet (ED) was prepared by substituting soybean oil in the control diet (CD) by a
more » ... fungi/algae-based oil containing ARA and DHA (2:1). Rats were fed with CD or ED during gestation; plasma, placenta, and fetuses were obtained at gestational day 20. DHA, ARA, and their precursors were analyzed in maternal plasma and placenta by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry. Fetuses and placentas were weighed, the proportion of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) determined, and placental lipid and protein oxidation analyzed. ED fetuses exhibited lower body weight compared to CD, being >40% IUGR; fetal weight negatively correlated with maternal plasma ARA, but not DHA. Only ED female placenta exhibited higher lipid and protein oxidation compared to its CD counterparts; lipid peroxidation is negatively associated with fetal weight. In conclusion, high ARA during gestation associates with IUGR, through placental oxidative stress, with females being more susceptible.
doi:10.3390/ijms19123863 pmid:30518038 fatcat:3f67v4e6cveerlzrbsoy3pwley