Comparative Anatomy of the Radial Sesamoid Bone in the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus), the Brown Bear (Ursus arctos) and the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

Hideki Endo, Takashi Makita, Motoki Sasaki, Kazuyoshi Arishima, Masako Yamamoto, Yoshihiro Hayashi
1999 Journal of Veterinary Medical Science  
Since we have clarified the manipulation mechanism using the radial sesamoid (RS) in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), our aim in this study is to examine the position, shape and function of the RS morphologically, and to observe the attachment to the RS of the M. abductor pollicis longus and the M. opponens pollicis in the other Ursidae species. So, we focused on the carpus and manus of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in this study. The RS was tightly
more » ... articulated to the radial carpal, and could not adduct-abduct independently of the radial carpal. The M. abductor pollicis longus tendon and the M. opponens pollicis belly were attached to the RS, independently. In the polar bear, the deep concave and the flat surface were confirmed in attachment area for these two muscles. The morphological relationship between the RS and the M. abductor pollicis longus and the M. opponens pollicis in the two species of bears were essentially consistent with that in the giant panda. It also demonstrated that the manipulation mechanism of the giant panda has been completely based on the functional relationship between the small RS, and the M. abductor pollicis longus and the M. opponens pollicis in Ursidae species.-KEY WORDS: brown bear, giant panda, polar bear, radial sesamoid bone.
doi:10.1292/jvms.61.903 pmid:10487229 fatcat:3sbsgbnugff3hhynvvn6cktvqu