RESISTANCE TO ABIOTIC FACTORS OF ENVIRONMENT AND QUALITATIVE TRAITS OF WINTER SOFT WHEAT VARIETIES
Grain Economy of Russia
One of the factors to improve grain quality of winter wheat is to develop and introduce new varieties of high productivity, good grain quality adapted to the local conditions. The article presents the study results of traits of grain quality and drought tolerance of winter soft wheat varieties in the initial periods of plant growth. It has been determined that all studied varieties are characterized with large grain unit. According to mass share of protein the analyzed samples belong to the 2-d
... s belong to the 2-d and 3-d quality grades. The variety 'Zhavoronok' showed the maximum mass share of protein in kernels (14%). On gluten content in kernels the varieties 'Asket' (24.6%, 'Volnitsa' (24.5%) and 'Zhavoronok' (24.3%) formed the grain with good indexes of the trait. The estimation of heat resistance degree in the initial periods of plant growth identified that the indexes ranged from 80.6% to 96.9%, and drought tolerance ranged from 37.1 (the variety 'Donskoy Mayak') to 82.3% (the variety 'Krasa Dona'). The varieties 'Krasa Dona' (254.2 r. u.), 'Ermak' (253.5 r. u.), 'Asket' (251.0 r. u.) and 'Volnitsa' (240.6 r. u.) demonstrated high indexes of complex resistance (ICR). The largest yields of grain on average through the years of study were produced by the varieties 'Krasa Dona' (8.4 t/ha), 'Kaprizulya' (8.3 t/ha), 'Lilit' (8.2 t/ha), 'Zhavoronok'(8.1 t/ha), 'Polina'(8.1 t/ha) and 'Volny Don'(8.0 t/ha). Due to the conducted study the new genotypes 'Volnitsa', 'Zhavoronok' and 'Krasa Dona' have been identified which produced high yields and quality of grain and possess high resistance to overheat and dehydration of fibers that allows using them in the breeding process as the sources of useful traits and properties.