MicroAlbuminuria Prevalence Study (MAPS) in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients in Hong Kong
Hong Kong Medical Journal
To assess the prevalence of macroalbuminuria and microalbuminuria, and the level of blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional clinic-based epidemiological study. Six medical centres (including two public hospital diabetes centres) in Hong Kong. Recruited from the medical centres from April to November 2002, after excluding those with bacteriuria and haematuria. Body mass index; blood pressure; levels of blood glucose,
... e, macroalbuminuria, and microalbuminuria; treatments for hypertension and diabetes. The as per-protocol recruited population of 437 hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients had a mean age of 61.7 (standard error, 0.5) years. Overall, the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in this population was high; 18.3% had macroalbuminuria (95% confidence interval, 16.5-20.2%) and 24.9% had microalbuminuria (95% confidence interval, 22.9-27.0%). Predictive factors were advanced age, male sex, poor blood pressure control, and existing cardiovascular complications. Whilst almost all patients (96.1%) were receiving treatment for hypertension, only 25.6% had systolic/diastolic blood pressures below the 130/85 mm Hg target. In Hong Kong, the prevalence of microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria is high in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension, particularly in males and those with poorly controlled systolic blood pressure. Tight glycaemic control, antihypertensive therapy, and use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors/blockers are necessary to retard the progression of nephropathy to advanced renal disease.