Review of the prevalence of risk factors of non- communicable diseases in Kashmir valley
Journal of Bacteriology & Mycology: Open Access
Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are known threats to socio economic development not only in developing countries but worldwide. Urbanization and lifestyle changes happening rapidly around the globe including India have resulted in increased prevalence of NCD and Jammu & Kashmir is no exception to this worldwide problem. The rising trend in NCD here warrants continuous surveillance and awareness amongst population. Estimating burden of modifiable risk factors contributing to NCD for intervention
... and prevention of NCDs is mandatory. Method: This cross sectional study was carried out from June 2018 and continued till January 2019 in one of the blocks of District Budgam of Jammu & Kashmir. A detailed predesigned health questionnaire was used to record the parameters like age, dwelling, marital status, socio economic status, history of dependencies & duration, family and personal history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, behavioral history including lifestyle dependencies etc. of study participants, apparently healthy adults. Blood pressure, Random levels of blood sugar RBS and BMI of participant was recorded. The diagnosis of hypertension was done as per JNC 8 criteria and RBS levels >140mg/dl or patient on anti-diabetic medication was defined as diabetes. BMI of more than 23-29.9 and more than 30 was defined as overweight and obesity respectively. Results: Adults with mean age of 46.8±8.54 in males and 40.3±16.15 females with the similar proportion of males and females in different age groups was recorded with 19.8% populace in the age group of 25-34 as compared to 4.3% population in the age group of 75-84.Smoking was significantly higher in males as compared to females (p<0.001) pointing towards gender predilection.86.6% females were living a sedentary life as compared to 72.4% of males (p value <0.001) revealing gender as independent factor for sedentary life as females remain mostly confined to their homes. Health behaviors, physical inactivity and obesity, show statistically significant association with NCD factors like hypertension and diabetes in this study (p<0.002 p<0.023 resp. table) In present study only 2.6% males and 5.7% females had their hypertension controlled 8% and 11.2% males and females respectively were not controlled.12% of males and 10.8% of females were not aware and they were diagnosed hypertensive during study. Similarly for diabetes only (1.7%m & 3.2%f) were known diabetes with controlled blood sugar levels .However major chunk of the affected population were either uncontrolled (3.2% m & 4.7%f) or unaware (9.6% m & 7.0%f) of the disease. Conclusion: The study conducted in the semi urban area of J&K revealed that behavioral and biological cardio vascular risk factors are prevalent in the population. Awareness about these NCD is low. Physical inactivity and increasing BMI were the two important modifiable health risk behaviors associated with hypertension. Making common people aware about seeking health care for screening of these risk factors of NCD for detection of high risk group and implementation of evidence based management to reduce the mortality and morbidity related NCD is the need of the hour.