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The energy efficiency of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells always keeps changing with load and time. Considering cell diversity and operation variety, it's of necessity to find a simple method to estimate the changes. The work is done with the recently developed ideal cell model on behalf of various real cells, and results in a complete set of efficiency formulae including one for the instantaneous and three for the average. The formulae stand for a volt-ampere method which permits thedoi:10.4236/epe.2013.52a004 fatcat:wagbvlc5jnf45fvrdrwx2gduma