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Passwords should be easy to remember, yet expiration policies mandate their frequent change. Caught in the crossfire between these conflicting requirements, users often adopt creative methods to perform slight variations over time. While easily fooling the most basic checks for similarity, these schemes lead to a substantial decrease in actual security, because leaked passwords, albeit expired, can be effectively exploited as seeds for crackers. This work describes an approach based on Bloomdoi:10.3390/jcp1010005 fatcat:ka5d7iu74vbcdolu7zkyh6j6pa