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This paper examines how formal speci cation techniques can support the veri cation and validation (V&V) of knowledge-based systems. Formal speci cation techniques provide levels of description which support both veri cation and validation, and V&V techniques feed back to assist the development of the speci cations. Developing a formal speci cation for a system requires the prior construction of a conceptual model for the intended system. Many elements of this conceptual model can be e ectivelydoi:10.1017/s0269888900007542 fatcat:sojafaus4vadfon2j62dzzmu6e