Luminescence Tuning of Fluorinated Bistolanes via Electronic or Aggregated-Structure Control
Organic luminescent materials have a wide range of practical applications, but the understanding of the relationship between molecular structure and luminescent behavior is lacking. Herein, we synthesized fluorinated bistolanes with an electron-donating alkoxy substituent at one terminal and an electron-withdrawing substituent at the other to realize systematic control of the electron-density distribution. Evaluation of the phase transition behavior revealed that most of the fluorinated
... fluorinated bistolanes showed liquid-crystalline (LC) behavior, with the phase transition temperature depending on the terminal substituents. Additionally, the fluorinated luminophores displayed intense photoluminescence (PL) in solution and in their crystal phases. Remarkably, the PL color shifted dramatically depending on the dipole moment (μ||) along the long molecular axis; thus, PL tuning can be achieved through electronic modulation by precise control of the μ|| of the luminophore. Interestingly, in the LC phases under thermal conditions, the maximum PL band shifted by 0.210 eV upon phase transition from the crystal to smectic A LC phases, indicating that PL tuning can also be achieved by controlling the aggregated structure. These results offer a new molecular design for easily tunable PL materials using the molecular properties or external stimuli for promising applications, including light-emitting displays and PL sensing materials.