The visual cell morphology of Pagrus major and its adaptive changes with shift from palagic to benthic habitats

Gunzo KAWAMURA, Ryohei TSUDA, Hidemi KUMAI, Shinichi OHASHI
1984 Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi  
The visual cell morphology in 2-90mm long larvae and juveniles, and adult of the red sea bream Pagrus major was examined histologically. The visual system of the larvae is poorly devel oped at hatching, but becomes functional in 36 hours. At this time, the eyes are well pigmented, cones are formed, and optic nerves connect with the optic tectum. The visual cells of larvae smaller than 10.6 mm are all single cones. At 11mm TL, the single cones fuse to form twin cones, and rods appear at the same
more » ... time. Red sea bream shifts from a pelagic to a benthic habitat when about 12-15mm long. The observed increase in visual sensitivity at 11mm appears to be a pre adaptation to life at greater depths. Likewise, the specialized retinal region for acute vision shifts from temporal to dorso-temporal at a length of 30mm, implying a change in visual axis from fore to lower-fore direction, and an adaptation to the change in diet from planktonic to benthic animals.
doi:10.2331/suisan.50.1975 fatcat:u3bsf2h2krflfjxuavscsgt6ey